Materials

In the CLEANTOOL database you will find the following materials, which are here briefly described. If you want to check on the related data sets you have to use the navigation link “Database” on the left side and select the respective material in the search tool.

A priced material database can be tested as demo or limited searchable version under: http://www.wiam.de

Iron
Chemical Symbol Fe. Element No. 26 of the periodic system Atomic weight 55.85. A magnetic silver-white metal of high tensile strength ductile and malleable. Melting point of pure iron about 2795°F. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel, cast iron and wrought iron. [1]

Mild steel
Alloy of iron and carbon. Carbon content 0.15 – 0.3 %. Malleable and ductile. Uses: General engineering, nuts, bolts, screws, tubes [7]

Medium carbon steel
Alloy of iron and carbon. Carbon content 0.4 – 0.6 %. Tough rather than hard. Uses: Heavy forgings, axles, steel rails [7]

High carbon steel
Alloy of iron and carbon. Carbon content 0.7 – 1.5 %. Malleable, can be hardened and tempered, easily forged. Uses: Files, chisels, saws, taps, dies, lathe tools, etc. [7]

High speed steel
High carbon steel plus nickel or cobalt, chromium or tungsten. Brittle, withstands high temperatures without losing hardness, can be hardened and tempered. Uses: Lathe and machine tools, drills. [7]

Cast iron
Alloy of iron and carbon. Carbon content about 4 %. Brittle, cannot be forged, casts well, strong in compression, weak in tension. Uses: Machine bases, surface plates, vice bodies, lathe parts, cylinder blocks, piston rings [7]

Cast Steel
Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds. [1]

Alloy
Metal prepared by adding other metals or non-metals to a basic metal to secure desirable properties. [1]

Brass
Strip. 70% copper 30% zinc. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys. It is malleable and ductile. Excellent cold-working. Poor hot working and poor machining properties. Not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. Develops high tensile strength with cold-working. Temper is impaired by cold rolling and classified in hardness by the number of B & S Gages of rolling (reduction in thickness) from the previous annealing gage. Rated excellent for soft-soldering. Good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. Used for drawn cartridges, tubes, eyelet machine items, snap fasteners, etc. [1]

Brass yellow
Strip. 65% copper and 35% zinc. Known as “High Brass” or “Two to One Brass.” A copper-zinc alloy yellow in color. Formerly widely used but now largely supplanted by Cartridge Brass. [1]

Nickel
Chemical symbol Ni. Element No. 28 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 58.69. Silvery white, slightly magnetic metal, of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. Melting point 2651°F. Boiling point about 5250°F., specific gravity 8.90. Used for electroplating. Used as an alloying agent, it is of great importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-nickel, as well as in nickel-base alloys such as Monel Metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature). (3) Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic [1]

Copper
Chemical symbol Cu. Element No. 29 of the periodic system, atomic weight 63.57. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster, highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity; melting point 1981°F. Boiling point 4237°F. Specific gravity 8.94. Universally used in the pure state as sheet, tube, rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements [1]

Aluminium
Chemical symbol Al Element No. 13 of the periodic system; Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting point 1220°F.; boiling point approximately 4118°F.; ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminium is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. [1]

Chromium
Chemical symbol Cr. Element No. 24 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases hardenability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasions and wear (with high carbon). [1]

Alloy Steel
Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium. “Low Alloy” steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents. [1]

Stainless Steel (Chromium-Nickel Steel)
Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types [1]

Nickel Steel
Steel containing nickel as an alloying element. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water. [1]

Aluminium Killed Steel
A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent [1]

Zinc
Chemical Symbol Zn. Element No. 30 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 65.38. Blue-white metal; when pure, malleable and ductile even at ordinary temperatures; melting point 419.58°C., boiling point 908.5°C., specific gravity 7.14. It can be electrodeposited and is used extensively as a coating for steel. Zinc finds many outlets, such as dry batteries, etc. Zinc-base alloys are of great importance in die casting. Its most important alloy is brass. [1]

Galvanisation
Coating steel with zinc and tin (principally zinc) for rustproofing purposes. Formerly for the purpose of galvanizing, cut length steel sheets were passed singly through a bath of the molten metal. Today’s galvanizing processing method consists of uncoiling and passing the continuous length of successive coils either through a molten bath of the metal termed Hot Dipped Galvanizing or by continuously zinc coating the uncoiled sheet electrolytically – termed Electro-Galvanizing. [1]

Aluminium alloy characteristics
1) Highest operating temperatures, 2) Outstanding corrosion resistance, 3) Light weight, 4) Very good strength and hardness, 5) Good stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio, 6) Excellent EMI shielding properties, 7) Excellent thermal conductivity, 8. High electrical conductivity
Example of aluminium alloys: series 2000  includes aluminium-copper alloys. [2]

Zinc alloy characteristics
1) High strength and hardness, 2) Excellent electrical conductivity, 3) High thermal conductivity, 4) Lowest cost raw material, 5) High dimensional accuracy and stability, 6) Excellent thin wall capability, 7) Ability to cold form, which eases joining, 8. High quality finishing characteristics, 9) Outstanding corrosion resistance, 10) Full recyclability
Example of zinc alloys: alloy ZA 8 (ASTM) with properties: Density lb./cu. In: 0.227, Melting Range – °F: 707 – 759, Brinell Hardness: 95 – 110. [3]

Nickel alloys
Example of nickel alloys: alloy 400, A Nickel-Copper Alloy with high strength, excellent corrosion resistance and toughness or a wide temperature range. Highly resistant to corrosion by chlorinated solvents, glass-etching agents, sulfuric acid rical and most alkalies. can be useful in oxidizing atmospheres to 1000 F. Some common uses of this alloy are in valves, pumps, pump and propeller shafts, marine fixtures, electrical and electronic components, process equipment, petroleum refining and production equipment, heat exchangers. [4]

Glass
A transparent, hard, amorphous, brittle substance which is made by fusing together one or more of the oxides of silicon, boron, or phosphorus, with certain basic oxides (e.g., sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium), and cooling the product rapidly to prevent crystallization or devitrification. The melting point varies between 800°C and 950°C but it is worked at higher temperatures. The tensile strength of glass resides almost entirely in the outer skin; if this is scratched or corroded, the glass is much more easily broken.[5]

Plastic
A material that contains as an essential ingredient one or more organic polymeric substances of large molecular weight. It is solid in its finished state and, at some stage in its manufacture or processing into finished articles, can be shaped by flow. [6] Any of various organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments used as textile fibers [5]

Ceramic
A product made from clay or glass. It has the ability to retain its shape when heated in contrast with metal, which expands when heated. [6] Any of various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials made by shaping and then firing a nonmetallic mineral, such as clay, at a high temperature. [5]

Rubber
A yellowish, amorphous, elastic material obtained from the milky sap or latex of various tropical plants, especially the rubber tree, and vulcanized, pigmented, finished, and modified into products such as electric insulation, elastic bands and belts, tyres, and containers. Also called caoutchouc, India rubber. [5]

Referenzen (2003)
1) http://www.steelmill.com/dictionary/dictionaryofmetallurgyNR.html
2) http://www.elval.gr
3) http://www.purityzinc.com/alloys.html
4) http://www.falcon-metals.com/Nickel/NickelCharacteristics.htm
5) http://www.bartleby.com/61/
6) http://100megsfree4.com/dictionary/car-dicw.htm
7) “Metalwork Technology”, Strefford, McMurdo, Schofiled & Sims Ltd., 1985