Soils

In the CLEANTOOL database you will find the following dirts, which are here briefly described. If you want to check on the related data sets you have to use the navigation link “Database” on the left side and select the respective dirts in the search tool.

A substance being on a substrate may be seen according to the concrete conditions of use as non desired dirt, or as tolerable or even as desired (e.g. as corrosion protection). Therefore to define soil one could best refer to the US American military standard MIL-STD-1246C (Military Standard, Product Cleanlinesslevels and Contamination Control Program): soil is non desired material.

To classify soils one has to concentrate on the aspect of removing, as only in this way an assignment of applicable cleaning processes and soils is possible. For example substances with similar physical properties may not be removed by similar procedures because of differing additional properties be they chemical or otherwise. Thus a classification of soils in groups is necessary allowing for a direct assignment to the related cleaning methods.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) names in its manual “Choosing a cleaning process” six groups of soils and relates them to the most frequent used cleaning methods, whereby the suitability of the cleaning methods for the removal of a given soil is discussed in detail. Example processes for different typical applications are given. The separate soil groups are:

In the CLEANTOOL database you will find the following dirts, which are here briefly described. If you want to check on the related data sets you have to use the navigation link “Database” on the left side and select the respective soil in the search tool.

1. Organic

Mud
Wet, soft earth or earthy matter

Dust
Earth or other matter in fine dry particles

Oil
Any of a large class of substances typically unctuous, viscous, combustible, liquid at ordinary temperatures, and soluble in ether or alcohol but not in water. A greasy, unctuous liquid of vegetable, animal, mineral or synthetic origin.
COMPOUNDED OIL – mixture of a petroleum oil with animal or vegetable fat or oil. Compounded oils have a strong affinity for metal surfaces; they are particularly suitable for wet-steam conditions and for applications where lubricity and extra load-carrying ability are needed. They are not generally recommended where long-term oxidation stability is required. Because of reaction with the air oxygen and the catalytic effects of copper particles natural oils tend to thicken and gumming (a resin-like state).
Turbine oil. A top-quality rust- and oxidation-inhibited (R&O) oil that meets the rigid requirements traditionally imposed on steam-turbine lubrication. Quality turbine oils are also distinguished by good demulsibility, a requisite of effective oil-water separation. Turbine oils are widely used in other exacting applications for which long service life and dependable lubrication are mandatory. Such compressors, hydraulic systems, gear drives, and other equipment. Turbine oils can also be used as heat transfer fluids in open systems, where oxidation stability is of primary importance.
Synthetic oil – A lubricant produced by synthesis rather than by extraction or refinement, and as a result of the synthesis, the molecular structure can be precisely arranged to meet the manufacturers’ criteria for high performance engines. Synthetic lubricants are manufactured from a number of differing chemical bases, and several classes of compounds have been developed to provide base stocks for commercial synthetic fluids. Synthetic fluids are knows a Polyalfaolefins (PAO), poly esters, poly alkaline glycols (PAG), silicones, silicate esters, phosphate esters, fluoro carbons, etc. Synthetics lubricants frequently satisfy special requirements such as non-flammability, thermal stability, resistance to oxidation and radiation much better than mineral oil products. Also the urgency to the concept of environmental responsibility has led to the increased development and need for functional fluids that are both biodegradable and low in toxicity. A mixture of mineral and synthetic base fluids is often used to formulate high performance lubricants.

Mineral oil
Any petroleum oil, as contrasted to animal or vegetable oils.
MINERAL SEAL OIL – distillation fraction between kerosene and gas oil, widely used as a solvent in gas absorption processes, as a lubricant for the rolling of metal foil, and as a base oil in many specialty formulations. Mineral seal oil takes its name – not from any sealing function – but from the fact that it originally replaced oil derived from seal blubber for use as an illuminant for signal lamps and lighthouses.

Grease
Mixture of a fluid lubricant (usually a petroleum oil) and a thickener (usually a soap) dispersed in the oil. Because greases do not flow readily, they are used where extended lubrication is required and where oil would not be retained. Soap thickeners are formed by reacting (saponifying) a metallic hydroxide, or alkali, with a fat, fatty acid, or ester. The type of soap used depends on the grease properties desired. Calcium (lime) soap greases are highly resistant to water, but unstable at high temperatures. Sodium soap greases are stable at high temperatures, but wash out in moist conditions. Lithium soap greases resist both heat and moisture. A mixed-base soap is a combination of soaps, offering some of the advantages of each type. A complex soap is formed by the reaction of an alkali with a high-molecular-weight fat or fatty acid to form a soap, and the simultaneous reaction of the alkali with a short-chain organic or inorganic acid to form a metallic salt (the complexing agent). Complexing agents usually increase the dropping point of grease. Lithium, calcium, and aluminum greases are common alkalis in complex-soap greases. Non-soap thickeners, such a clays, silica gels, carbon black, and various synthetic organic materials are also used in grease manufacture. A multi-purpose grease is designed to provide resistance to heat as well as water, and may contain additives to increase load-carrying ability and inhibit rust.

Resin
Solid or semi-solid materials, light yellow to dark brown, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Resins occur naturally in plants, and are common in pines and firs, often appearing as globules on the bark. Synthetic resins, such as polystyrene, polyesters, and acrylics, are derived primarily from petroleum. Resins are widely used in the manufacture of lacquers, varnishes, plastics, adhesives, and rubber.

Drawing oil
Substances supporting the drawing of metals; there are drawing oils and pastes, with the latter giving more problems in cleaning as they are wax like and need usually high temperatures when doing aqueous cleaning.

Soot
A black substance formed by combustion, or disengaged from fuel in the process of combustion, which rises in fine particles, and adheres to the sides of the chimney or pipe conveying the smoke; strictly, the fine powder, consisting chiefly of carbon, which colors smoke, and which is the result of imperfect combustion.

Lubricant
Any substance interposed between two surfaces in relative motion for the purpose of reducing the friction and/or the wear between them.

Cooling lubricants
Also called metalworking fluids. Used to cool and lubricate machining activities, carry away debris and protect the surface of the workpiece; can be neat oils or water based fluids.

Corrosion protection layer
CORROSION INHIBITOR – additive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. There are several types of corrosion inhibitors. Polar compounds wet the metal surface preferentially, protecting it with a film of oil. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion so that only the oil touches the metal surface. Another type of corrosion inhibitor combines chemically with the metal to present a non-reactive surface. See rust inhibitor.
RUST PREVENTIVE (also: RUST PROOFING)- compound for coating metal surfaces with a film that protects against rust; commonly used for the preservation of equipment in storage. The base material of a rust preventive may be a petroleum oil, solvent, wax, or asphalt, to which a rust inhibitor is added. A formulation consisting largely of a solvent and additives is commonly called a thin-film rust preventive because of the thin coating that remains after evaporation of the solvent. Rust preventives are formulated for a variety of conditions of exposure; e.g., short-time “in-process” protection, indoor storage, exposed outdoor storage, etc.
RUST INHIBITOR – type of corrosion inhibitor used in lubricants to protect the lubricated surfaces against rusting. See R&O. R&O – rust-and-oxidation inhibited. A term applied to highly refined industrial lubricating oils formulated for long service in circulating systems, compressors, hydraulic systems, bearing housings, gear cases, etc. The finest R&O oils are often referred to as turbine oils.

Sweat
Body: Salty fluid secreted by sweat glands.

Fingerprints
A smudge made by a (dirty) finger.

Poses a bio hazard:

Tar
A dark, oily, viscous material, consisting mainly of hydrocarbons, produced by the destructive distillation of organic substances such as wood, coal, or peat.
A thick, black, viscous liquid obtained by the distillation of wood, coal, etc., and having a varied composition according to the temperature and material employed in obtaining it.

Bitumen
Any of various natural substances, as asphalt, consisting mainly of hydrocarbons.

Varnish
A viscid liquid, consisting of a solution of resinous matter in an oil or volatile liquid, laid on work with a brush, or otherwise. When applied the varnish dries, either by evaporation or chemical action, and the resinous part form thus a smooth, hard surface, with a beautiful gloss, capable of resisting, to a greater or less degree, the influences of air and moisture. According to the sort of solvents employed, the ordinary kinds of varnish are divided into three classes: spirit, turpentine, and oil varnishes.

Paint
A substance used as a coating to protect or decorate a surface (especially a mixture of pigment suspended in a liquid that dries to form a hard coating).
There is also paint in powder form that is applied on the surface by electrostatics.

Adhesives
A substance that unites or bonds surfaces together.

Wax
A substance resembling beeswax in appearance and character, and in general distinguished by its composition of esters and higher alcohols, and by its freedom from fatty acids; used for underbody sealing, cavity sealing, and paintwork care.
car wax – A polish which may be in a paste or a cream and used in protecting the finish of a car.

Emulsifiers
Additive that promotes the formation of a stable mixture, or emulsion, of oil and water. Common emulsifiers are: metallic soaps, certain animal and vegetable oils, and various polar compounds.

2. Inorganic

Metal particles
Larger metal particles called chips being a byproduct of process like drilling, milling or turning.Smaller metal particles called fines being a byproduct of processes like filing, sawing, grinding, polishing, etc.

Graphite
Native carbon in hexagonal crystals, also foliated or granular massive, of black color and metallic luster, and so soft as to leave a trace on paper. It is used for pencils (improperly called lead pencils), for crucibles, and as a lubricator, etc. Often called plumbago or black lead.

Grinding agents
Abrasives used to remove material from a surface. Most of grinding is done by abrasive wheels that rotate at high speed, or by power-driven cloth or paper belts coated with an abrasive. The abrasive grain can range from coarse to fine. Manufacturers use coarse wheels for rough grinding, medium wheels for general sharpening and grinding, and fine wheels for finishing grinding on products that must have an extremely smooth surface.The most common abrasives are silicon carbide, used for grinding hard, brittle materials such as cast iron; and aluminum oxide, a tougher abrasive used for tool steel and wrought iron. Various cementing materials bond the abrasive grains together into a wheel. In most wheels, the bonding material is clay. The clay is mixed with the abrasive grains and heated so that it becomes glasslike. Water and high temperatures do not affect it. Other bonding materials include common water glass (sodium silicate), plastic resins, and rubber. Grinding belts use the same abrasive as wheels, as well as such natural abrasives as crushed garnet and flint. Belts grind metals, glass, and ceramics.

Polishing agents
Fine abrasives used to smooth surfaces. Polishing is usually done with wheels made of cloth, felt, or leather coated with a fine abrasive such as a fine grade of silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. For finer work, wheels coated with jewelers’ rouge, a fine ferric-oxide powder, or tripoli, a type of silica, may be used.

Rust
The red or orange coating that forms on the surface of iron when exposed to air and moisture, consisting chiefly o ferric hydroxide and ferric oxide formed by oxidation.
RUST – the chemical combination of oxygen with ferrous engine parts, including other iron complexes not removable by organic solvents.

Oxide
A compound in which oxygen is bonded to one or more electropositive atoms.

Mill scale
Relatively heavy surface layer of oxide resulting from the oxidation of steel due to heat.

Sand
Fine particles of stone, esp. of siliceous stone, but not reduced to dust; comminuted stone in the form of loose grains, which are not coherent when wet.

Salt
A chemical compound formed by replacing all or part of the hydrogen ions of an acid with metal ions or electropositive radicals.

3. Others (examples)

Asbestos
Either of two incombustible, chemical-resistant, fibrous mineral forms of impure magnesium silicate, used for fireproofing, electrical insulation, building materials, brake linings, and chemical filters.
Asbestos is a group of six different fibrous minerals: The six minerals are amosite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and the fibrous varieties of tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite. They occur naturally in soil and rocks in some areas. Asbestos fibers vary in length and may be straight or curled. The fibers are resistant to heat and most chemicals. Asbestos is used for a wide range of manufactured goods, mostly roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, asbestos cement products, friction products (automobile clutch, brake, and transmission parts), textiles, packaging, gaskets, and coatings.
Asbestos is a known carcinogen: There are two types of cancer caused by exposure to high levels of asbestos: cancer of the lung tissue itself and mesothelioma, a cancer of the membrane that surrounds the lung and other internal organs. Both of these are usually fatal. These diseases do not develop immediately, but show up only after many years.

Nitro amines
Nitro derivates of amines (having the group -NNO), cancerogenous

Halogenated lubricants
A synthetic lubricant, see under “Oil”

References (2003):
(1) Random House Webster’s College Dictionary
(2) Dictionary of Lubricant Terms, Chevron Oronite’s
(3) Lubrication and Oil Analysis Dictionary
(4) Technical Dictionary, Fluitec International’s website
(5) Dictionary of Automotive Terms
(6) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
(7) Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)
(8) http://www.hyperdic.net/dic/
(9) B and M Grinding
(10) Dictionary of Metallurgy
(11) Webster’s New World™ Medical Dictionary 2nd Edition
(12) Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary
(13) Lubrication and Oil Analysis Dictionary
(14) UNEP Solvents Technical Options Committee